Appendices - Hirohito's War

A. Submarines: America Draws Tight the Noose
December 1941 – August 1945

[Charts: A.1]
Planned Submarine Attack on the Panama CanalThe Failure of Japanese Submarine DesignWasteful Dissipation of Japanese Submarine ForceJapanese Submarine Cargo Missions to EuropeJapanese Submarines’ Disappointing ‘Kill’ PerformanceJapan’s ‘Long Lance’ JockeysNewport Torpedo StationRear Admiral Charles LockwoodUS Submarine Achievements in the Pacific WarThe Failure of Japanese Counter-Submarine StrategyThe Missed Opportunity 
B. Oil, Raw Materials and Logistics: 'Just Start Swinging'
December 1941 to August 1945

[Charts: B.1, B.2 ]
Logistics of Oil in the Asia Pacific WarAmerica’s T-2 TankerJapan’s Oil Tanker FleetRaw Materials Issues of the US EconomyLiberty Ships ‘to go’Attack Cargo Ships, LSTs and Higgins BoatsJapan’s Cargo Ship ProblemsJapan’s Air Force LogisticsUS Supply Logistics in the Asia Pacific RegionOperation Olympic and Japan’s Logistical Denouement 
C. Economics of the Pacific War: The 'New Deal' Mobilized
[Charts: C.1, C.2, C.3, C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.13, C.14, C.15 ]
Management of the US Wartime EconomyGuns and ButterInflation and ‘General Max’Production Line and Management SystemsProductivity, Entrepreneurs, Management, Labor, Blacks and WomenManaging the ScientistsExpansion of America’s Productive CapacityUS Aircraft ProductionTanks, Artillery, Trucks, Ordnance and the Problem of ObsolescenceElectronics, Radio, and RadarWas the Depression a Boon or Hindrance to US War Mobilization?Japan’s Wartime EconomyConclusion 
D. ‘Victory Disease’: The Japanese Empire: From Co-Prosperity to Tyranny
[Charts: D.1, D.2 ]
The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial ExpansionThe Economics and Philosophy of Japan’s Co-Prosperity SphereOld Empire, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria,  The Structures of Japan’s New Empire,  Slave Labor in Japan and in the FieldCruelty and SuppressionPrisoners of WarThe Psychology of BrutalityUnit 731 and the Secrets of Medical ExperimentationConclusion
E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze
[October 1944 to August 1945]

[Charts: E.1 ]
IntroductionHalsey: After Leyte GulfKamikaze: Individual BeginningsThe Formal Adoption of a Kamikaze as a StrategyRecruitment, Motivation and TrainingJapanese Government PropagandaDevelopments in Kamikaze Technology and the US ResponseNaval Kamikaze and Yamato’s Suicide MissionUS Defense TacticsFight to the Death and Operation KETSU (Decisive)Admiral Ugaki, The Last KamikazeThe Cost and Effectiveness of the Kamikaze CampaignKamikaze: A Unique Japanese Phenomenon? 
F. American Intelligence in the Pacific War
G. Could Japan Have Won the Pacific War?
Introduction Distance, Logistics and Extension of Power Mobilization, Logistics, Isolationism and the Will to Fight Weapons that could have won Japan the War Strategies for Japanese Victory Conclusion  
H. Month by Month Timeline of the Pacific War
[December 1941 - August 1945]
I. The 'Pacific War': Sundry Tables and Lists
J. Pacific War Photographs
K. The Battle of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
L. The Battles of Attu and Kiska
Attu and Kiska
M. Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific War
SummaryComparison of Pacific War Aircraft CarriersEssex Class CarriersUS Light CarriersJapanese fleet carriers 
N. The Role of Oil in the Pacific War
[Charts: N.1, N.2, N.3, N.4, N.5]
Oil’s Early HistoryDevelopment of the Oil Industry in the United StatesRoyal Dutch ShellThe Growth of Oil Fired Engines in the Marine IndustryThe Rise of the AutomobileTanks and Trucks Transform Battlefield MobilityAviation GasolineInterwar Development of the Aeronautical IndustryGlobal Oil OutputOil and the Decision for WarConclusion  
O. Japanese - Soviet Conflict in Siberia, Mongolia and Manchuria
[April 1945–5 September 1945]

[Maps: 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6]
IntroductionRusso-Japanese Relations from the Late Nineteenth CenturyThe Trans-Siberian Railway Transforms the Geopolitics of Northeast AsiaThe Battle of Lake Khasan and Amur River ClashesThe Japanese-Soviet Neutrality PactThe Yalta ConferenceJapanese Preparations for the Defense of ManchuriaDeployment of Soviet ForcesSoviet Invasion of Northwest Manchuria from MongoliaInvasion of Northeast Manchuria from Far Eastern SiberiaThe Battle of MutanchiangThe Battle of Sakhalin IslandThe Occupation of the Kuril Islands  The Significance of the Soviet Invasions 


Interwar Development of the Aeronautical Industry: Before World War I, France’s General Ferdinand Foch described aviation as “good sport, but for the Army the aero plane is worthless.”10 In Britain it was a minnow of an industry employing just 1,000 people in the UK and producing a few hundred aircraft a year – a high proportion of them experimental prototypes. The next four years saw a rapid transformation. By the end of the war aircraft speeds had doubled to 120 mph while operating ceilings rose to 27,000 feet. From simple reconnaissance functions aircraft increasingly developed not only fiercesome machine gun firepower but also developed bombing capability. The rise in production was dramatic. By the end of World War I France had produced 64,000 aircraft, Britain 55,000, Germany 48,000 and Italy 20,000.

Post-World War I federal regulation had helped the development of the nascent aeronautical industry, which it recognized as essential both to national prestige and defense. The National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics had been established by Congress in 1915 and its engineers helped bring about critical technological advances including more efficient propellers, wing design, engines, instrumentation, wing flaps, new materials and streamlining. A new generation of metal skinned streamlined aircraft emerged including the Boeing 247D in 1933 and the Douglas DC-3 in 1935.

The Kelly Mail Act of 1925 authorised the use of private companies to fly mail for the first time. A Bureau of Aeronautics within the Commerce Department was established by the Air Commerce Act [1926]. Pilots were now licensed and aircraft had to be certified. As commercial passenger flights were developed safety became an issue. Rules were later established by the Civil Aeronautics Act [1940] and regulation was further enhanced by the Civil Aeronautics Board and Civil Aeronautics Administration Act [1940].

While passenger aircraft had begun to fulfill the commercial needs of America’s rapidly expanding cities, diffusion of aircraft also penetrated the countryside where crop spaying developed a cadre of rural flyers. The US Agricultural Department developed modern crop dusting with the Army Signal Corps. A first outing was made on 3 August 1921 by test pilot John Macready in a Curtiss JN4, who spread an arsenic formula designed to eliminate catalpha sphinx caterpillars outside Troy, Ohio. Crop dusting soon became ubiquitous on America’s vast midwestern farms. Curtis went on to develop more exotic military aircraft over the next twenty years.

The 1930s proved to be a golden era of flight exploration and daredevilry. Long distance flying, racing and air displays captured the public imagination. Fliers such as Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart, Jimmy Doolittle and Howard Hughes became some of the highest profile celebrity superstars of their era.

Jimmy Doolittle won the 1925 Schneider Trophy held at Chesapeake Bay. Flying the same Curtiss R3C the following day, Doolittle recorded a world record speed of 245.7mph. Curtiss would go on to become the United States’ biggest aircraft manufacturer during the war, producing famous aircraft such as the P-40 Warhawk fighter and the B-26 Commando (transport plane). Doolittle would go on to achieve even greater fame for his daring exploits in the Pacific War.

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