Appendices - Hirohito's War

A. Submarines: America Draws Tight the Noose
December 1941 – August 1945

[Charts: A.1]
Planned Submarine Attack on the Panama CanalThe Failure of Japanese Submarine DesignWasteful Dissipation of Japanese Submarine ForceJapanese Submarine Cargo Missions to EuropeJapanese Submarines’ Disappointing ‘Kill’ PerformanceJapan’s ‘Long Lance’ JockeysNewport Torpedo StationRear Admiral Charles LockwoodUS Submarine Achievements in the Pacific WarThe Failure of Japanese Counter-Submarine StrategyThe Missed Opportunity 
B. Oil, Raw Materials and Logistics: 'Just Start Swinging'
December 1941 to August 1945

[Charts: B.1, B.2 ]
Logistics of Oil in the Asia Pacific WarAmerica’s T-2 TankerJapan’s Oil Tanker FleetRaw Materials Issues of the US EconomyLiberty Ships ‘to go’Attack Cargo Ships, LSTs and Higgins BoatsJapan’s Cargo Ship ProblemsJapan’s Air Force LogisticsUS Supply Logistics in the Asia Pacific RegionOperation Olympic and Japan’s Logistical Denouement 
C. Economics of the Pacific War: The 'New Deal' Mobilized
[Charts: C.1, C.2, C.3, C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.13, C.14, C.15 ]
Management of the US Wartime EconomyGuns and ButterInflation and ‘General Max’Production Line and Management SystemsProductivity, Entrepreneurs, Management, Labor, Blacks and WomenManaging the ScientistsExpansion of America’s Productive CapacityUS Aircraft ProductionTanks, Artillery, Trucks, Ordnance and the Problem of ObsolescenceElectronics, Radio, and RadarWas the Depression a Boon or Hindrance to US War Mobilization?Japan’s Wartime EconomyConclusion 
D. ‘Victory Disease’: The Japanese Empire: From Co-Prosperity to Tyranny
[Charts: D.1, D.2 ]
The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial ExpansionThe Economics and Philosophy of Japan’s Co-Prosperity SphereOld Empire, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria,  The Structures of Japan’s New Empire,  Slave Labor in Japan and in the FieldCruelty and SuppressionPrisoners of WarThe Psychology of BrutalityUnit 731 and the Secrets of Medical ExperimentationConclusion
E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze
[October 1944 to August 1945]

[Charts: E.1 ]
IntroductionHalsey: After Leyte GulfKamikaze: Individual BeginningsThe Formal Adoption of a Kamikaze as a StrategyRecruitment, Motivation and TrainingJapanese Government PropagandaDevelopments in Kamikaze Technology and the US ResponseNaval Kamikaze and Yamato’s Suicide MissionUS Defense TacticsFight to the Death and Operation KETSU (Decisive)Admiral Ugaki, The Last KamikazeThe Cost and Effectiveness of the Kamikaze CampaignKamikaze: A Unique Japanese Phenomenon? 
F. American Intelligence in the Pacific War
G. Could Japan Have Won the Pacific War?
Introduction Distance, Logistics and Extension of Power Mobilization, Logistics, Isolationism and the Will to Fight Weapons that could have won Japan the War Strategies for Japanese Victory Conclusion  
H. Month by Month Timeline of the Pacific War
[December 1941 - August 1945]
I. The 'Pacific War': Sundry Tables and Lists
J. Pacific War Photographs
K. The Battle of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
L. The Battles of Attu and Kiska
Attu and Kiska
M. Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific War
SummaryComparison of Pacific War Aircraft CarriersEssex Class CarriersUS Light CarriersJapanese fleet carriers 
N. The Role of Oil in the Pacific War
[Charts: N.1, N.2, N.3, N.4, N.5]
Oil’s Early HistoryDevelopment of the Oil Industry in the United StatesRoyal Dutch ShellThe Growth of Oil Fired Engines in the Marine IndustryThe Rise of the AutomobileTanks and Trucks Transform Battlefield MobilityAviation GasolineInterwar Development of the Aeronautical IndustryGlobal Oil OutputOil and the Decision for WarConclusion  
O. Japanese - Soviet Conflict in Siberia, Mongolia and Manchuria
[April 1945–5 September 1945]

[Maps: 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6]
IntroductionRusso-Japanese Relations from the Late Nineteenth CenturyThe Trans-Siberian Railway Transforms the Geopolitics of Northeast AsiaThe Battle of Lake Khasan and Amur River ClashesThe Japanese-Soviet Neutrality PactThe Yalta ConferenceJapanese Preparations for the Defense of ManchuriaDeployment of Soviet ForcesSoviet Invasion of Northwest Manchuria from MongoliaInvasion of Northeast Manchuria from Far Eastern SiberiaThe Battle of MutanchiangThe Battle of Sakhalin IslandThe Occupation of the Kuril Islands  The Significance of the Soviet Invasions 


Cruelty and Suppression: Hirohito’s War is replete with detail about Japan’s wartime atrocities. Though atrocities are the normal stuff of war and the Allied armies were far from innocent in this respect, the massacre of Japanese soldiers at the Battle of the Bismarck Sea is particularly notable, the scale of the brutality across the breadth of Japan’s Asian Empire is nevertheless perhaps unique in the annals of modern history.

Not surprisingly perhaps most of the information has come from Allied POWs.

Few kempeitai (secret police) have ever come forward to discuss torture methods. However, Yoshio Tschuchiya, who joined the secret police in 1933 at the age of twenty-two has been a rare interviewee. Torturing prisoners for information developed a standard routine. Beating would begin with fists but would soon become exhausting. It was followed by hitting the prisoner with a red hot iron bar. That too had disadvantages: “it was hard to stay in the room because human flesh is burned and it smells bad.”30 Hanging torture was frequently endured for hours; as was water boarding, which gave the victim the sensation of drowning. The kempeitai were well aware that a high percentage of the confessions were lies but carried on anyway because that was what was expected of them.

Indian soldiers were particularly badly treated. Being considered racially inferior to the Japanese did not help their case. At Kual Balait (in modern day Brunei) fifty-five Indian soldiers were starved to death for refusing to join Bose’s Indian National Army. Another sixty-five were bayoneted or beheaded. Naik Ram “saw that all of the Indians’ heads had been cut off.”31

Allied bomber crews were dealt with particularly harshly. Most were tortured and executed. Those who parachuted onto mainland Japan were often killed by enraged civilians; “they were extremely hostile and beat me with clubs, rods, rocks and many other objects,” recalled Lieutenant ‘Hap’ Halloran, a B-29 bomber, “I blacked out from the beatings. I felt I would die that afternoon on enemy soil.”32 Paradoxically they were saved form the mob by the kempeitai who were keen to interrogate them. Even if they were not killed, fliers were tortured and humiliated. In one bizarre episode American fliers were stripped naked and placed in animal cages at a Zoo for the Japanese public to view and taunt them.

After the Great Tokyo Air Raid on 8 March 1945, in which 100,000 Japanese perished, a jail holding sixty-two American prisoners was hit. Many were killed but the remainder were butchered as the infuriated prison guards ran amok with their bayonets. Remarkably American flyers at Omori Prison Camp, where they were used as slave labor, survived.

In addition to many first hand witnesses to torture, confirmation of kempeitai techniques came with the capture of a handbook Japanese Instructions on How to Torture. The booklet advised that threats could be as good as torture to extract confessions: “Hints of future discomforts, for example, torture, murder, starvation, solitary confinement, deprivation of sleep,”33 were all recommended. Evidence suggests that ‘hints’ were rarely used as the first step in the torture program.

At Tamarkan camp on the River Kwai, the kempeitai used thumbscrews, sharpened bamboo and whips. Lighted cigarettes would be pushed into the ears and noses of prisoners chosen for punishment. Other punishments included regular beating with open or closed fists, beatings with iron bars and wood, kicks to the stomach, genitals and head, being made to stand for hours holding a heavy piece of wood or stone, kneeling on bamboo poles, forcing POWs to beat each other up, indefinite hand presses followed by beating when they stopped, and solitary confinement in tiny bamboo cages. Toosey would later say, “Nowhere in the world was sadism practiced with greater efficiency than in the Japanese army.”34

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