Appendices - Hirohito's War

A. Submarines: America Draws Tight the Noose
December 1941 – August 1945

[Charts: A.1]
Planned Submarine Attack on the Panama CanalThe Failure of Japanese Submarine DesignWasteful Dissipation of Japanese Submarine ForceJapanese Submarine Cargo Missions to EuropeJapanese Submarines’ Disappointing ‘Kill’ PerformanceJapan’s ‘Long Lance’ JockeysNewport Torpedo StationRear Admiral Charles LockwoodUS Submarine Achievements in the Pacific WarThe Failure of Japanese Counter-Submarine StrategyThe Missed Opportunity 
B. Oil, Raw Materials and Logistics: 'Just Start Swinging'
December 1941 to August 1945

[Charts: B.1, B.2 ]
Logistics of Oil in the Asia Pacific WarAmerica’s T-2 TankerJapan’s Oil Tanker FleetRaw Materials Issues of the US EconomyLiberty Ships ‘to go’Attack Cargo Ships, LSTs and Higgins BoatsJapan’s Cargo Ship ProblemsJapan’s Air Force LogisticsUS Supply Logistics in the Asia Pacific RegionOperation Olympic and Japan’s Logistical Denouement 
C. Economics of the Pacific War: The 'New Deal' Mobilized
[Charts: C.1, C.2, C.3, C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.13, C.14, C.15 ]
Management of the US Wartime EconomyGuns and ButterInflation and ‘General Max’Production Line and Management SystemsProductivity, Entrepreneurs, Management, Labor, Blacks and WomenManaging the ScientistsExpansion of America’s Productive CapacityUS Aircraft ProductionTanks, Artillery, Trucks, Ordnance and the Problem of ObsolescenceElectronics, Radio, and RadarWas the Depression a Boon or Hindrance to US War Mobilization?Japan’s Wartime EconomyConclusion 
D. ‘Victory Disease’: The Japanese Empire: From Co-Prosperity to Tyranny
[Charts: D.1, D.2 ]
The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial ExpansionThe Economics and Philosophy of Japan’s Co-Prosperity SphereOld Empire, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria,  The Structures of Japan’s New Empire,  Slave Labor in Japan and in the FieldCruelty and SuppressionPrisoners of WarThe Psychology of BrutalityUnit 731 and the Secrets of Medical ExperimentationConclusion
E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze
[October 1944 to August 1945]

[Charts: E.1 ]
IntroductionHalsey: After Leyte GulfKamikaze: Individual BeginningsThe Formal Adoption of a Kamikaze as a StrategyRecruitment, Motivation and TrainingJapanese Government PropagandaDevelopments in Kamikaze Technology and the US ResponseNaval Kamikaze and Yamato’s Suicide MissionUS Defense TacticsFight to the Death and Operation KETSU (Decisive)Admiral Ugaki, The Last KamikazeThe Cost and Effectiveness of the Kamikaze CampaignKamikaze: A Unique Japanese Phenomenon? 
F. American Intelligence in the Pacific War
G. Could Japan Have Won the Pacific War?
Introduction Distance, Logistics and Extension of Power Mobilization, Logistics, Isolationism and the Will to Fight Weapons that could have won Japan the War Strategies for Japanese Victory Conclusion  
H. Month by Month Timeline of the Pacific War
[December 1941 - August 1945]
I. The 'Pacific War': Sundry Tables and Lists
J. Pacific War Photographs
K. The Battle of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
L. The Battles of Attu and Kiska
Attu and Kiska
M. Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific War
SummaryComparison of Pacific War Aircraft CarriersEssex Class CarriersUS Light CarriersJapanese fleet carriers 
N. The Role of Oil in the Pacific War
[Charts: N.1, N.2, N.3, N.4, N.5]
Oil’s Early HistoryDevelopment of the Oil Industry in the United StatesRoyal Dutch ShellThe Growth of Oil Fired Engines in the Marine IndustryThe Rise of the AutomobileTanks and Trucks Transform Battlefield MobilityAviation GasolineInterwar Development of the Aeronautical IndustryGlobal Oil OutputOil and the Decision for WarConclusion  
O. Japanese - Soviet Conflict in Siberia, Mongolia and Manchuria
[April 1945–5 September 1945]

[Maps: 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6]
IntroductionRusso-Japanese Relations from the Late Nineteenth CenturyThe Trans-Siberian Railway Transforms the Geopolitics of Northeast AsiaThe Battle of Lake Khasan and Amur River ClashesThe Japanese-Soviet Neutrality PactThe Yalta ConferenceJapanese Preparations for the Defense of ManchuriaDeployment of Soviet ForcesSoviet Invasion of Northwest Manchuria from MongoliaInvasion of Northeast Manchuria from Far Eastern SiberiaThe Battle of MutanchiangThe Battle of Sakhalin IslandThe Occupation of the Kuril Islands  The Significance of the Soviet Invasions 


The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial Expansion: There were in essence four phases of Imperial expansion. In the first phase after the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the new government first set about establishing control of the northern island of Hokkaido, which was sparsely populated by the indigenous Ainu. Colonisation was encouraged and military control imposed to prevent the possibility of Imperial Russia’s creep southward from the Sakhalin Island. In the decade after the restoration the Japanese population of the island grew from just 48,000 to over 250,000. In a further move to establish control over its immediate neighbours, in 1879 Japan established control of the kingdom of the Ryuku Islands (including the main island of Okinawa) which had formerly been a tributary state to both China and Japan.

The second phase of Empire moved from tidying up of borders to expansion. The principal targets were Korea (a Chinese tributary state) and Formosa. After defeating China in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1896, Japan took control of Formosa and assumed the primary foreign relationship with Korea – a position that was further strengthened after the defeat of Imperial Russian forces in Manchuria at the Battle of Mukden and at sea at the Battle of Tsushima. In 1910, Japan, after murdering Korea’s queen, formerly annexed Korea. In World War II Japan took advantage of Germany’s European preoccupations to absorb significant elements of Germany’s Asian Empire – including the Mariana Islands.

Somewhat thwarted in its imperial ambitions at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, which only allowed it to retain the parts of Germany’s Asian empire north of the equator, Japan became a model citizen of the new international order based around the League of Nations, the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the Washington and London Naval Conferences. However the Japanese Army broke out of this containment when it albeit reluctantly agreed to back its Army’s occupation of Manchuria after the Mukden Incident that they had engineered as a casus belli. The puppet state of Manchukuo was established in 1932. This third phase of Japan’s Empire continued with a creeping Japanese takeover of Inner Mongolia and Northern China until the Marco Polo Bridge Incident brought the start of all out conflict with Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist (Kuomintang) government and a takeover of the main coastal industrial cities of China’s east coast including the capital Nanking. In 1940, the Vichy government of French Indochina was forced to yield to a Japanese occupation of North Vietnam followed by a complete occupation of Indochina in July 1941.  

The fourth phase of Imperial expansion was initiated with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the invasion of northern Malaya and the attack on American forces in the Philippines. The conquest of Malaya, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Singapore and the islands of the central Pacific including Wake (USA) and Tarawa (Great Britain) was followed by the conquest of Burma, and the oil rich British Borneo and the sprawling archipelago of the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese Empire reached its apogee with the occupation of the north coast of New Guinea and the Australian protectorate of the Bismarck Archipelago.

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