Appendices - Hirohito's War

A. Submarines: America Draws Tight the Noose
December 1941 – August 1945

[Charts: A.1]
Planned Submarine Attack on the Panama CanalThe Failure of Japanese Submarine DesignWasteful Dissipation of Japanese Submarine ForceJapanese Submarine Cargo Missions to EuropeJapanese Submarines’ Disappointing ‘Kill’ PerformanceJapan’s ‘Long Lance’ JockeysNewport Torpedo StationRear Admiral Charles LockwoodUS Submarine Achievements in the Pacific WarThe Failure of Japanese Counter-Submarine StrategyThe Missed Opportunity 
B. Oil, Raw Materials and Logistics: 'Just Start Swinging'
December 1941 to August 1945

[Charts: B.1, B.2 ]
Logistics of Oil in the Asia Pacific WarAmerica’s T-2 TankerJapan’s Oil Tanker FleetRaw Materials Issues of the US EconomyLiberty Ships ‘to go’Attack Cargo Ships, LSTs and Higgins BoatsJapan’s Cargo Ship ProblemsJapan’s Air Force LogisticsUS Supply Logistics in the Asia Pacific RegionOperation Olympic and Japan’s Logistical Denouement 
C. Economics of the Pacific War: The 'New Deal' Mobilized
[Charts: C.1, C.2, C.3, C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.13, C.14, C.15 ]
Management of the US Wartime EconomyGuns and ButterInflation and ‘General Max’Production Line and Management SystemsProductivity, Entrepreneurs, Management, Labor, Blacks and WomenManaging the ScientistsExpansion of America’s Productive CapacityUS Aircraft ProductionTanks, Artillery, Trucks, Ordnance and the Problem of ObsolescenceElectronics, Radio, and RadarWas the Depression a Boon or Hindrance to US War Mobilization?Japan’s Wartime EconomyConclusion 
D. ‘Victory Disease’: The Japanese Empire: From Co-Prosperity to Tyranny
[Charts: D.1, D.2 ]
The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial ExpansionThe Economics and Philosophy of Japan’s Co-Prosperity SphereOld Empire, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria,  The Structures of Japan’s New Empire,  Slave Labor in Japan and in the FieldCruelty and SuppressionPrisoners of WarThe Psychology of BrutalityUnit 731 and the Secrets of Medical ExperimentationConclusion
E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze
[October 1944 to August 1945]

[Charts: E.1 ]
IntroductionHalsey: After Leyte GulfKamikaze: Individual BeginningsThe Formal Adoption of a Kamikaze as a StrategyRecruitment, Motivation and TrainingJapanese Government PropagandaDevelopments in Kamikaze Technology and the US ResponseNaval Kamikaze and Yamato’s Suicide MissionUS Defense TacticsFight to the Death and Operation KETSU (Decisive)Admiral Ugaki, The Last KamikazeThe Cost and Effectiveness of the Kamikaze CampaignKamikaze: A Unique Japanese Phenomenon? 
F. American Intelligence in the Pacific War
G. Could Japan Have Won the Pacific War?
Introduction Distance, Logistics and Extension of Power Mobilization, Logistics, Isolationism and the Will to Fight Weapons that could have won Japan the War Strategies for Japanese Victory Conclusion  
H. Month by Month Timeline of the Pacific War
[December 1941 - August 1945]
I. The 'Pacific War': Sundry Tables and Lists
J. Pacific War Photographs
K. The Battle of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
L. The Battles of Attu and Kiska
Attu and Kiska
M. Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific War
SummaryComparison of Pacific War Aircraft CarriersEssex Class CarriersUS Light CarriersJapanese fleet carriers 
N. The Role of Oil in the Pacific War
[Charts: N.1, N.2, N.3, N.4, N.5]
Oil’s Early HistoryDevelopment of the Oil Industry in the United StatesRoyal Dutch ShellThe Growth of Oil Fired Engines in the Marine IndustryThe Rise of the AutomobileTanks and Trucks Transform Battlefield MobilityAviation GasolineInterwar Development of the Aeronautical IndustryGlobal Oil OutputOil and the Decision for WarConclusion  
O. Japanese - Soviet Conflict in Siberia, Mongolia and Manchuria
[April 1945–5 September 1945]

[Maps: 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6]
IntroductionRusso-Japanese Relations from the Late Nineteenth CenturyThe Trans-Siberian Railway Transforms the Geopolitics of Northeast AsiaThe Battle of Lake Khasan and Amur River ClashesThe Japanese-Soviet Neutrality PactThe Yalta ConferenceJapanese Preparations for the Defense of ManchuriaDeployment of Soviet ForcesSoviet Invasion of Northwest Manchuria from MongoliaInvasion of Northeast Manchuria from Far Eastern SiberiaThe Battle of MutanchiangThe Battle of Sakhalin IslandThe Occupation of the Kuril Islands  The Significance of the Soviet Invasions 


Production Line and Management Systems: In looking at the speed of takeoff of America’s wartime rearmament, perhaps the key differentiator between the US and other industrialized economies was their expertise in production line and management systems. Henry Ford had played the critical role in transforming the production line. Having left Cadillac in 1902 Henry Ford founded his own company the following year. From 1,708 cars produced in 1903, Ford increased production to 308,000 by 1914 catapulting his company to a 60% share of US auto output. The transformative technology was a flow system of production whereby workers fitted standardized parts with custom made tools to a car that travelled along an assembly line.

This idea, commonplace now, was revolutionary at the time. Previously automobiles had been produced in batches with workers moving from one vehicle to another using general purpose tools. Essentially motor manufacture had been a craft production system – barely a step up from the production of horse drawn carriages. Ford thus developed a production system that focused on vertical integration, little handwork, automation, use of unskilled labor in assembly, moderate quality at low cost as well as high volume. Mass production had arrived.

Of almost equal importance were the development of management organization, branding and financial engineering by Alfred Sloan of General Motors. Though he recognized the astonishing rise is volumes and productivity achieved by Henry Ford’s assembly line revolution, Sloan understood that the management of a vast new industry by a one-man fiefdom was fatally flawed. By the end of the 1920s Sloan’s GM brands, Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick had overtaken Ford in market volumes. Both of these giants, joined by Chryler (Dodge and Plymouth) not only survived the depression but gobbled their competitors market share through pricing and investment in new assembly-line technologies – notably the electric servo-motors that powered conveyer belts that brought parts to the work stations of assembly workers.

Although the technological and management innovations led by Ford and Sloan were broadly disseminated before World War II, America was the only country to implement the new mass technologies for war production. It was the auto manufacturers who led the way. In 1942 Ford, GM and Chrysler ceased to produce motor cars. Trucks continued to be built but the remainder of their capacity and new production was entirely geared to war – to the production of tanks, engines, munitions and most importantly aircraft. The Big Three brought their flow system technological expertise to bear on the militarization of the economy.

By comparison, Germany, Britain and Japan, in spite of their significant increases in military output, remained wedded to the batch system of manufacture – a system that was still semi-craft like in its structure. It is instructive to look at photographs of the aircraft assembly facilities of Ford, Heinkel and Mitsubishi. [See attached] At the Willow Run Plant Ford broke down the assembly of B-24 Liberator Bombers in 20,000 separate operations for the 500,000 parts involved not including rivets (700,000). Previously aircraft manufacture had been a hand-craft business. Significantly airframe weight produced by US employee per month increased from 21lbs in 1941 to 96lbs in 1944. The result was that the rate of growth of US aircraft production during the war was 298% greater than Britain, Germany or Japan.

In addition to transforming the systems of manufacture, the automaker also transformed their users into engineers with at least modest technical skills. Model Ts and their successors, Model Bs and ‘8s’ were designed to be repaired by their owners. The Model T came with a 64-page owners manual written in question and answer form showing how everyday tools could be used to solve some 140 problems that could occur with their cars. The need for self-training increased as the Great Depression made self-help an affordable necessity. By 1941 the US auto industry had trained a generation of mechanical engineers who were familiar with piston heads, carburetors and monkey wrenches. Thus, in a war that was highly mechanized from the outset, America, as soon as it had committed itself to compete had overwhelming industrial advantages.

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