Appendices - Hirohito's War

A. Submarines: America Draws Tight the Noose
December 1941 – August 1945

[Charts: A.1]
Planned Submarine Attack on the Panama CanalThe Failure of Japanese Submarine DesignWasteful Dissipation of Japanese Submarine ForceJapanese Submarine Cargo Missions to EuropeJapanese Submarines’ Disappointing ‘Kill’ PerformanceJapan’s ‘Long Lance’ JockeysNewport Torpedo StationRear Admiral Charles LockwoodUS Submarine Achievements in the Pacific WarThe Failure of Japanese Counter-Submarine StrategyThe Missed Opportunity 
B. Oil, Raw Materials and Logistics: 'Just Start Swinging'
December 1941 to August 1945

[Charts: B.1, B.2 ]
Logistics of Oil in the Asia Pacific WarAmerica’s T-2 TankerJapan’s Oil Tanker FleetRaw Materials Issues of the US EconomyLiberty Ships ‘to go’Attack Cargo Ships, LSTs and Higgins BoatsJapan’s Cargo Ship ProblemsJapan’s Air Force LogisticsUS Supply Logistics in the Asia Pacific RegionOperation Olympic and Japan’s Logistical Denouement 
C. Economics of the Pacific War: The 'New Deal' Mobilized
[Charts: C.1, C.2, C.3, C.4, C.5, C.6, C.7, C.8, C.9, C.10, C.11, C.12, C.13, C.14, C.15 ]
Management of the US Wartime EconomyGuns and ButterInflation and ‘General Max’Production Line and Management SystemsProductivity, Entrepreneurs, Management, Labor, Blacks and WomenManaging the ScientistsExpansion of America’s Productive CapacityUS Aircraft ProductionTanks, Artillery, Trucks, Ordnance and the Problem of ObsolescenceElectronics, Radio, and RadarWas the Depression a Boon or Hindrance to US War Mobilization?Japan’s Wartime EconomyConclusion 
D. ‘Victory Disease’: The Japanese Empire: From Co-Prosperity to Tyranny
[Charts: D.1, D.2 ]
The Four Phases of Japan’s Imperial ExpansionThe Economics and Philosophy of Japan’s Co-Prosperity SphereOld Empire, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria,  The Structures of Japan’s New Empire,  Slave Labor in Japan and in the FieldCruelty and SuppressionPrisoners of WarThe Psychology of BrutalityUnit 731 and the Secrets of Medical ExperimentationConclusion
E. Typhoons and Divine Winds: Kamikaze
[October 1944 to August 1945]

[Charts: E.1 ]
IntroductionHalsey: After Leyte GulfKamikaze: Individual BeginningsThe Formal Adoption of a Kamikaze as a StrategyRecruitment, Motivation and TrainingJapanese Government PropagandaDevelopments in Kamikaze Technology and the US ResponseNaval Kamikaze and Yamato’s Suicide MissionUS Defense TacticsFight to the Death and Operation KETSU (Decisive)Admiral Ugaki, The Last KamikazeThe Cost and Effectiveness of the Kamikaze CampaignKamikaze: A Unique Japanese Phenomenon? 
F. American Intelligence in the Pacific War
G. Could Japan Have Won the Pacific War?
Introduction Distance, Logistics and Extension of Power Mobilization, Logistics, Isolationism and the Will to Fight Weapons that could have won Japan the War Strategies for Japanese Victory Conclusion  
H. Month by Month Timeline of the Pacific War
[December 1941 - August 1945]
I. The 'Pacific War': Sundry Tables and Lists
J. Pacific War Photographs
K. The Battle of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
L. The Battles of Attu and Kiska
Attu and Kiska
M. Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific War
SummaryComparison of Pacific War Aircraft CarriersEssex Class CarriersUS Light CarriersJapanese fleet carriers 
N. The Role of Oil in the Pacific War
[Charts: N.1, N.2, N.3, N.4, N.5]
Oil’s Early HistoryDevelopment of the Oil Industry in the United StatesRoyal Dutch ShellThe Growth of Oil Fired Engines in the Marine IndustryThe Rise of the AutomobileTanks and Trucks Transform Battlefield MobilityAviation GasolineInterwar Development of the Aeronautical IndustryGlobal Oil OutputOil and the Decision for WarConclusion  
O. Japanese - Soviet Conflict in Siberia, Mongolia and Manchuria
[April 1945–5 September 1945]

[Maps: 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6]
IntroductionRusso-Japanese Relations from the Late Nineteenth CenturyThe Trans-Siberian Railway Transforms the Geopolitics of Northeast AsiaThe Battle of Lake Khasan and Amur River ClashesThe Japanese-Soviet Neutrality PactThe Yalta ConferenceJapanese Preparations for the Defense of ManchuriaDeployment of Soviet ForcesSoviet Invasion of Northwest Manchuria from MongoliaInvasion of Northeast Manchuria from Far Eastern SiberiaThe Battle of MutanchiangThe Battle of Sakhalin IslandThe Occupation of the Kuril Islands  The Significance of the Soviet Invasions 


Royal Dutch Shell: The founder Marcus Samuel started selling oriental sea-shells from his shop in the East End of London in the 1830s. Shells gave the company its name. Samuel’s sons developed an import and export trading business with machine tools, textiles and rice. After visiting the Black Sea and seeing the potential for oil, the Samuels took their company into oil trading. Starting in 1892 the Samuels revolutionized transportation of oil by hiring tankers to carry oil through the Suez Canal. Five years later 1897 the Samuels changed the company’s name to the Shell Transport and Trading Company.

Around the same time, in 1890, a new company, Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was formed in the Dutch East Asian colony of Sumatra. The company had its origins in the curiosity of Aeilko Jans Zijlker, a plantation manager for East Sumatra Tobacco Company. While visiting a swampy coastal area of Southern Sumatra, Zijlker came across pools of liquid, which, when tested, yielded 60 percent kerosene. With the help of a royal license from the Dutch government his business took off.

Although Zijlker died in the year the company was founded, his successor Jean Baptiste Kessler, oversaw the building of a 6-mile pipeline to a refinery at Balaban River that started production in 1892. In spite of initial funding difficulties production rose dramatically. In the three years from the beginning of 1895, production increased by 500 percent. Even Standard Oil took notice. One executive noted, ‘Every day makes the situation [Royal Dutch Petroleum] more serious and dangerous to handle. If we don’t get control of the situation soon, the Russians, Rothchilds, or some other party may.”3 In spite of stiff completion from Standard Oil, which offered US$40m to buy out Shell, Samuel’s Shell merged with Royal Dutch Petroleum. Thus Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, was established in 1907; ownership was 60 percent Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and 40 percent by the Shell Transport and Trading. To prevent Standard Oil from buying up shares and closing down the company, the directors of the newly merged company created a special preference voting stock that was tightly controlled.

When the US banned the export of high-octane aviation fuels to Japan in 1940, the Japanese government began to put pressure on the Dutch government to increase exports to Japan of 100-octane gasoline, which Royal Dutch Shell had just started to manufacture at its Plaju Refinery in South Sumatra. Shortages of higher-octane fuels and anti-knock additives were already in short supply by 1938 to the extent that the Japanese government lowered the standard for private car gasoline to 74-octane. When Roosevelt’s freeze on Japan’s financial assets led to an oil embargo in July 1941, Shell’s assets in Sumatra and the Dutch East Indies, the nearest major oil resources to Japan, became the default existential target for Japan’s military government.

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